Entity versus Incremental Theories of Intelligence

Framework

An entity theorist sees a person’s skill or qualities as ingrained and unalterable. An incremental theorist believes that skills and qualities may be gained. While an entity theorist sees intelligence as fixed, an incremental theorist sees it as fluid.

The important takeaway is an entity theorist believes that success is due to a combination of luck and the capabilities one was born with whereas an incremental theorist believes that success is a combination of the skills that one has acquired through practice, natural capability, and luck.

Intelligence in Children Example

Art of Learning: “Children who associate success with hard work tend to have a ‘mastery-oriented response’ to challenging situations, while children who see themselves as plain ‘smart’ or ‘dumb’ have a learned helplessness orientation.”

Art of Learning: “Very smart kids with entity theories tend to be far more brittle when challenged than kids with learning theories who would be considered not quite as sharp. In fact, some of the brightest kids prove to be the most vulnerable to becoming helpless, because they feel the need to live up to and maintain a perfectionist image that is easily and inevitably shattered.”

Source

The Art of Learning by Josh Waitzkin

‘The power of believe you can improve’ by Carol Dweck

Dissipation of influence through weak ties

Principle

Strong ties are relationships embedded in friendship and close, often daily, interactions with another individual. Weak ties are second degree, third degree, or more degree connections. A subject’s weak ties are linked to a subject’s strong ties through a chain strong tie relationships.

Influential individuals are those with strong ties who possess many strong ties outside of the original individual’s network. When an influential individual takes or experiences a socially significant action, the event ripples out through his or her chains of strong ties.

Once the ‘rippling’ reaches a critical mass, its outward spread grows stronger due to the social pressure exerted by those first strong and weak ties originally affected. It transforms a set of individual concerns to a collective and communal concern.

Source

The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg

Sociology Behind Building Movements

Framework

Three parts to how movements are started:

  1. Strong ties and the habits of friendship
  2. Weak ties and the habits of a community
  3. Movement participants given new habits,a revamped sense of ownership, and a fresh identity
Example
 
     “Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott became the epicenter of the civil rights campaign not only because of an individual’s act of defiance, but also because of social patterns. Park’s experiences offer a lesson in the power of social habits — the behaviors that occur, unthinkingly, across dozens or hundreds or thousands of people which are often hard to see as they emerge, but which contain a power that can change the world. Social habits are what fill streets with protesters who may not know one another, who might be marching for different reasons, but who are all moving in the same direction. Social habits are why some initiatives become world-changing movements, while others fail to ignite. And the reason why social habits have such influence is because at the root of many movements — be they large-scale revolutions or simple fluctuations in the churches people attend — is a three part process that historians and sociologists says shows up again and again
     A movement starts because of the social habits of friendship and the strong ties between close acquaintances.
     It grows because of the habits of a community, and the weak ties that hold neighborhoods and clans together.
     And it endures because a movement’s leaders give participants new habits that create a fresh sense of identity and feeling of ownership” (217)
Source
 
The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg

Habit Loop

Term

There are three parts to a habit loop: 1) Cue, 2) Routine, and 3) Reward.

 1. The Cue indicates that there’s an opportunity to engage in a useful Routine that will end in Reward.

2. The Routine is the subject’s learned response to the Cue. It is typically an action or set of actions.

3. The Reward determines whether the Cue is worth remembering in the future.

For a habit to be created, it must have a distinct Cues and Rewards. The Cue is simply a signal that leads the subject to beneficial outcomes amidst the noise of day-to-day life. If the subject does not receive a Reward from executing the Routine, the reason to engage in the Routine disappears. And although the Routine will likely be remembered, the Cue will disappear back into the noise. Therefore, Habit Loops must have a Cue that the subject notices and a Reward that the subject rates as desirable (or at least a Reward that its basal ganglia or dorsal medial habenula finds desirable).

Source

The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg

Chunking

Principle
A chunk is information united through meaning. It allows an individual to more efficiently synthesize large blocks of information and gain an intuitive understanding of large sets of data. This intuitive understanding of a large set of data is frequently called expertise.
How to Form a Chunk

1. Find a block of information you have to ‘chunk’

2. Break apart the block of information into pieces for you to process

3. Search for uniting first principles amongst pieces of information’

-First principles are the meaning underneath the greater whole

4. Connect pieces of information in a way that makes sense within the context of the first principles

5. Conduct focus learning

-Alternate between the pieces of information and the first principles uniting the pieces of information

6.Practice until the information is intuitively understood

Source

Habitual Decision Making in Organizations

Principle
Organizations’ current decisions are driven by their past behavior rather than pure reason. Decisions are ultimately come to by individuals acting with the context of a social organization. The behavior of organizational members is driven by their past experience interacting with other members; members’ knowledge of the social consequences of their choices create incentivizes individual choices that are frequently are at odds with the most rational organizational choice. Consequently, an organization’s internal social history can tell us much more about what to expect in their future decisions than purely rational observations.
Explanation
“Nelson and Winter [authors of An Evolutionary Theory of Behavior] had spent more than a decade examining how companies work, trudging through swamps of data before arriving at their central conclusion: ‘Much of firm behavior,’ they wrote, is best ‘understood as a reflection of the general habits and strategic orientation coming from the firm’s past,’ rather than ‘the result of a detailed survey of remote twigs of a decision tree.’
     Or to put in language that people use outside of theoretical economics, it may seem like most organizations make rational choices based on deliberate decision making, but that’s not really how companies operate at all. Instead firms are guided by long-held organizational habits,, patterns that emerge from thousands of employees’ independent decisions. And these habits have more profound impacts than anyone previously understood.”
Example
“ [Paul O’Neill] quickly figured out that the government’s efforts, which should have been guided by logical rules and deliberate priorities, were instead driven by bizarre institutional processes that in many ways, operated like habits. Bureaucrats and politicians, rather than making decisions, were responding to cues and automatic routines in order to get rewards such as promotions or re-elections. It was a habit loop— spread across thousands of people and billions of dollars”
Source
The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg

Cue Sensitivity

Term

Enables a habit to be passively adopted. Humans can passively acquire habits without any effort for the better or for the worse. It happens because our brain is ‘sensitive’ to cues and is constantly looking for chances to create habits. Habits provide an advantage by allowing humans to respond instinctually to their environments thus creating relatively quick responses with a minimal amount of effort. Cues serve as the data that initiates these automated human reactions; they are the context against which automaticity can be acquired.

 
The brain makes use of all information available to it when forming habits. Therefore, almost anything a human can perceive can become a cue, whether that be a sound, an image, or a smell. It is the utility of the pattern of the perceptions that matters more than the perceptions themselves.

Explanation
“Possible to learn and make unconscious choices without remembering anything about the lesson or decision making. Eugene showed that habits, as much as memory and reason, are the root for how we behave” (25, Power of Habit)
Source

The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg